Merrigan et al. (2010) reported results that are similar MSM in three states in Nigeria 52. Another present research in Nigeria among MSM whom involved with transactional intercourse, indicated that MSM aged 25 years and above had been four times very likely to be HIV good compared to those aged 15–19 years 53. Nevertheless, our findings are contrary to those reported by Beyrer et al. (2012) and (2016) which indicated that more youthful MSM had greater burden of HIV 1, 54. A plausible description for the choosing is the fact that the older MSM have experienced extended experience of HIV through greater range intimate lovers, participating in transactional intercourse and greater experience of unprotected anal intercourse. Moreover, MSM sampled this season and 2014 were very likely to be HIV good when compared with those who work in 2007 and also this further supports our argument that the exposure that is prolonged higher risk behaviours will be the reason for higher HIV prevalence among older MSM. Young MSM aged 16–19 years will probably nevertheless have support that is parental thus, there’s less socioeconomic stress to take part in risky intimate techniques such as for instance transactional intercourse. In addition, their networks that are sexual around their peers in place of intergenerational intimate lovers and also this limits their contact with older HIV contaminated MSM.
There clearly was a significant boost in the proportion of MSM whom reported sex with feminine lovers between 2007 and 2014. This is really a possible connection between MSM therefore the basic populace and therefore merits conversation given that gains in reduced total of HIV prevalence one of the general populace could be eroded by bisexual sexual intercourse among MSM. The increase in bisexuality may mirror the hostility that is increasing stigma and criminalization of MSM in Nigeria. Schwartz et al. (2015) examined the instant ramifications of the marriage that is same-sex work in Nigeria and reported a statistically significant rise in percentage of MSM that has feminine lovers following the legislation ended up being passed away in comparison with the pre-law period 13. This coping procedure towards the high stigma and criminalization of MSM could also adversely affect their usage of key populace friendly clinics because they continue steadily to conceal their identification also russianbrides to health care employees.
This research has many restrictions. The lack of a study that is prospective while the utilization of cross-sectional studies from unmatched cohort limitations the energy of our research and so calls for caution when you look at the interpretation associated with the information. There could be dependence that is potential information from various rounds of IBBSS that might overestimate HIV prevalence if an important amount of positives from past rounds had been recruited into subsequent rounds or an underestimation of HIV prevalence is an important amount of HIV negative MSM were targeted and recruited in subsequent rounds. Future studies ought to include an adjustable to simply help recognize those in past rounds and their HIV status at that round to permit a far more robust estimation of HIV among MSM. Information on HIV prevention programs and therapy coverage into the research states wasn’t available and thus could never be accounted for in our research to measure the impacts independently of those programs into the research outcome. In addition, information on treatment protection may help give an explanation for increase that is observed therapy protection ended up being evaluated become low. Another limitation is the fact that of social desirability bias on intimate danger behaviours as information had been self-reported, nevertheless the greater upsurge in constant condom usage during transactional intercourse in comparison to non-transactional is comparable to that seen among female intercourse employees 54 and shows that risks behaviors captured during these scholarly studies may have been under-reported provided the enhance of STIs and HIV observed. Additionally, studies on biological validation of unsafe sex among feminine intercourse workers have indicated significant over-reporting of protected sex 55 and future studies must look into biological validation of protected intercourse among MSM to raised characterize risk behaviours medication usage especially utilization of methamphetamine 1 happens to be related to HIV among MSM, but, there was clearly no information on medication usage among MSM in most three rounds for the study. Further research is required to figure out the relationship of medication usage and HIV among MSM in Nigeria. Finally, not all the customers decided on an HIV ensure that you the percentage of refusal ranged from 10 to 16percent. Even though the status of these who rejected an HIV test is not thought, individuals whom declined to go for an HIV test could have done this due to past knowledge of HIV infection and thus prevalence of HIV was underestimated when you look at the present research and afterwards biases the noticed trend in HIV prevalence.
In summary, this the study that is first assess the trend of HIV prevalence among MSM in Nigeria so we report a wide range of key findings. Like in other climes, HIV prevalence among MSM in Nigeria is for a progression that is alarming a general enhance of 10% point per year over 7 years. No state is spared, and avoidance packages must certanly be holistic and include the utilization of methods aided by the evidence that is strongest of greatest effectiveness in preventing HIV transmission; very very early remedy for partners, 2, 56 condoms 32, 57 and oral preexposure prophylaxis 58. Finally, the HIV epidemic among MSM in Nigeria is severe and obviously, is one of the defining challenges ahead, and possibly the essential critical space in the nationwide HIV avoidance program to control the HIV epidemic in Nigeria.
Accessibility to information and materials
Data can be obtained under reasonable demand through the matching writer.